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We report results from two experiments that used frogs from two separate sources. 1 were from a long-term captive colony maintained at the University of California, Berkeley, whereas adults from Exp. In both experiments, three females and three males were injected with human choriogonadotropin (1,000 international units) 6 h before harvesting gametes.Atrazine is the most commonly used herbicide in the U. We examined the effects of atrazine on sexual development in African clawed frogs (). It can be present at several parts per million in agricultural runoff and can reach 40 parts per billion (ppb) in precipitation.The effective levels reported in the current study are realistic exposures that suggest that other amphibian species exposed to atrazine in the wild could be at risk of impaired sexual development.This widespread compound and other environmental endocrine disruptors may be a factor in global amphibian declines. Atrazine has been used for over 40 years and currently it is used in more than 80 countries.
In addition, we examined plasma testosterone levels in sexually mature males.Male suffered a 10-fold decrease in testosterone levels when exposed to 25 ppb atrazine.In the last 10 years, a great deal of attention has focused on the global presence of endocrine-disrupting contaminants in the environment (1, 2). Department of Agriculture reports that more than 30,000 tons (60 million pounds) are used annually in the U. Despite its widespread intensive use, atrazine is considered safe because of its short half-life and negligible bioaccumulation and biomagnification (13).Similarly, a great deal of attention has focused on global amphibian declines (3, 4). Also, atrazine seems to have very few effects on adults and reportedly induces abnormalities and deformities only at very high doses.We hypothesize that atrazine induces aromatase and promotes the conversion of testosterone to estrogen.
This disruption in steroidogenesis likely explains the demasculinization of the male larynx and the production of hermaphrodites.